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尊重歷史 面向未來 堅定不移維護和穩定中美關係(1)(中英對照)

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Respect History, Look to the Future and Firmly Safeguard and Stabilize China-US Relations

尊重歷史 面向未來 堅定不移維護和穩定中美關係

Yang Jiechi, Member of the Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee and Director of the Office of the Foreign Affairs Commission of the CPC Central Committee

中共中央政治局委員、中央外事工作委員會辦公室主任 楊潔篪

The relations between China and the United States are among the most important bilateral relationships in the world. To safeguard and stabilize China-US relations concerns the welfare of the Chinese and American people and people in the world. It also bears on peace, stability and development in the world. President Xi Jinping pointed out, back in 2014, that past and current experiences show that China and the US stand to gain from cooperation and lose from confrontation. China and the US working together can make great things happen for the two countries and the world at large, while China and the US stuck in confrontation spells disaster for the two countries and beyond. It is important for both China and the US to stand high and look far, and work together to increase cooperation. Commitment to cooperation and non-confrontation between China and the US brings benefit to both countries and to all in the global community. In the exchange of congratulatory messages between the two Presidents on the 40th anniversary of China-US diplomatic ties, President Xi Jinping pointed out that over the past four decades, the bilateral relations have made historic progress despite twists and turns, delivering tremendous benefits to their peoples and contributing significantly to world peace, stability, and prosperity. History has made it abundantly clear that there is no better option than cooperation for both countries. The US side also recognized the enormous progress in US-China relations achieved over the decades.

中美關係是世界上最重要的雙邊關係之一。維護和穩定中美關係事關兩國人民和世界各國人民福祉,也關乎世界和平、穩定、發展。習近平主席2014年即指出,歷史和現實都表明,中美兩國合則兩利、鬥則俱傷。中美合作可以辦成有利於兩國和世界的大事,中美對抗對兩國和世界肯定是災難。雙方應該登高望遠,加強合作,堅持合作,避免對抗,既造福兩國,又兼濟天下。在兩國元首慶祝建交40週年互致賀信時,習近平主席指出,中美建交40年來,兩國關係歷經風雨,取得了歷史性發展,為兩國人民帶來了巨大利益,也為世界和平、穩定、繁榮作出了重要貢獻。歷史充分證明,合作是雙方最好的選擇。美方也表示,多年來,中美關係取得了巨大發展。

The world is now going through major changes unseen in a century, and peace and development remain the overriding theme of the times. To uphold world peace and promote development for all is the shared mission and responsibility for China and the US. What it requires is for the two countries to view and handle their relationship in a proper manner and seek a way of peaceful co-existence despite differences. It was based on such a recognition that China and the US agreed to work together toward a new model of major-country relations featuring non-conflict, non-confrontation, mutual respect and win-win cooperation. It was also based on this recognition that the two sides, after the current US Administration took office, agreed to jointly promote a China-US relationship based on coordination, cooperation and stability.

世界正經歷百年未有之大變局,和平與發展仍然是時代主題。維護世界和平、促進共同發展是中美兩國的共同責任和使命,需要雙方正確看待和妥善處理彼此關係,形成和而不同的相處之道。正是基於這一點,中美雙方同意共同構建不衝突不對抗、相互尊重、合作共贏的新型大國關係,本屆美國政府執政後中美雙方同意共同推動以協調、合作、穩定為基調的中美關係。

Nonetheless, for some time, some politicians in the US have kept making false statements and groundless remarks against China. They have viciously attacked the Communist Party of China (CPC) and China’s political system. They have deliberately distorted and even attempted to write off the history of China-US relations for the past nearly 50 years. What they are up to is to stitch up lies to blind the American people and fool international public opinion. For the international community, it is clear that the US Administration has chosen unilaterally to be provocative. The erroneous words and moves by the US Administration constituted interference in China’s internal affairs. They undermined China’s interests and seriously disrupted China-US relations, putting the relationship in a most complex and grave situation since the establishment of diplomatic ties. In response to the US move, the Chinese Government has expounded its position in a comprehensive manner and reacted resolutely to firmly defend China’s sovereignty, security and development interests and firmly safeguard and stabilize China-US relations.

但是,近一個時期以來,美國一些政客接連拋出種種謬論,惡毒攻擊中國共產黨和中國政治制度,蓄意歪曲並全盤否定近50年來中美關係的歷史。他們試圖用謊言矇蔽美國人民,欺騙國際輿論。國際社會有目共睹,是美執政當局單方面挑起事端,採取一系列干涉中國內政、損害中方利益、嚴重破壞中美關係的錯誤言行,導致兩國關係出現建交以來異常複雜嚴峻的局面。對此,中國政府已經全面闡明瞭中方立場,予以堅決迴應,堅定不移維護國家主權安全發展利益,堅定不移維護和穩定中美關係。

A sound and stable China-US relationship affects the well-being of China, the US and the world at large, both now and in the future. It is what the people of both countries and the wider world expect to see. We must never allow a handful of self-serving US politicians to push the relationship into serious jeopardy.

中美關係的健康穩定發展事關中美兩國和世界的當下與未來,符合中美兩國人民和世界各國人民的共同願望。絕不能任由美國一小撮政客出於一己私利,把中美關係推到十分危險的境地。

I. The Chinese and American people have a long history of friendly exchanges. They fought shoulder to shoulder during the World Anti-Fascist War. In 1949, under the leadership of the CPC, the Chinese people gained liberation and founded the People’s Republic of China. Chairman Mao Zedong solemnly declared that the Chinese people had since stood up.

一. 中美兩國人民有着友好交往的歷史,曾經在世界反法西斯戰爭中並肩戰鬥。1949年,在中國共產黨領導下,中國人民獲得瞭解放,建立了中華人民共和國。毛澤東主席莊嚴宣告,中國人民從此站起來了。

After the founding of New China, diplomatic relations were established between China and countries after countries on the basis of equality and mutual benefit, and mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity. However, the wrong US policy not to recognize the People’s Republic of China kept the two countries long in mutual estrangement and hostility. Yet, the trend of progress of history and the advancement of the times could not be stopped. The Chinese and American people had always cherished friendly sentiments toward each other, and had never stopped making efforts to seek friendly exchanges and cooperation for mutual benefit. In 1970, in his meeting with the US journalist Edgar Snow, Chairman Mao Zedong said, "China and the US will establish diplomatic relations anyway. How can the two countries stay out of diplomatic ties for 100 years?" President Nixon observed in the same year that "it is certainly in our interest, and in the interest of peace and stability in Asia and the world, that we take what steps we can toward improved practical relations with Peking". Chairman Mao Zedong and Premier Zhou Enlai demonstrated strategic insight with their decision and personal commitment to launch the "ping-pong diplomacy", and Dr. Henry Kissinger made a secret visit to China in July 1971. The momentum was built toward normalization of China-US relations.

新中國成立後,中國在平等互利、相互尊重主權和領土完整的基礎上同一批又一批國家建立了外交關係。然而,由於美方對中華人民共和國採取拒絕承認的錯誤政策,致使中美陷入長期相互隔絕、彼此敵對狀態。歷史總是要前進,時代總是要進步,這是不可阻擋的歷史潮流。中美兩國人民對彼此始終懷有友好的感情,雙方尋求友好交往和互利合作的努力從未停息。1970年,毛澤東主席在會見美國記者斯諾時表示:“中美兩國總要建交的。中國和美國難道就一百年不建交啊?”尼克松總統在1970年也指出:“我們改善同北京的實際上的關係,這肯定是對我們有益的,同時也有利於亞洲和世界的和平與穩定”。毛澤東主席、周恩來總理高瞻遠矚,親自決策並推動實施了中美“乒乓外交”,基辛格博士1971年7月祕密訪華,中美實現關係正常化漸成大勢所趨。

In February 1972, President Nixon paid an ice-breaking visit to China at the invitation of Premier Zhou Enlai, when they had a "handshake that crossed the vast Pacific Ocean". Addressing the welcoming banquet at the Great Hall of the People, President Nixon said that he had come for US interests. "You believe deeply in your system, and we believe just as deeply in our system. It is not our common beliefs that have brought us together here, but our common interests and our common hopes." He added, "There is no reason for us to be enemies." "This is the day for our two peoples to rise to the heights of greatness which can build a new and a better world." Chinese leaders emphasized that China and the US needed to be clear-minded about their differences and work hard to find common ground in order for the relationship to make a new start.

1972年2月,應周恩來總理邀請,尼克松總統對中國進行了“破冰之旅”,實現了“跨越太平洋的握手”。尼克松總統在人民大會堂歡迎宴會致詞時表示,我是為了美國人民的利益而來。你們深信你們的制度,我們同樣深信我們的制度。我們在這裏見面,並不是由於我們有共同的信仰,而是由於我們有共同的利益和共同的希望。我們沒有理由要成為敵人。現在是我們兩國人民攀登偉大境界的高峯,締造新的、更美好世界的時候了。中國領導人強調,中美雙方要弄清楚彼此之間的分歧,努力尋找共同點,使我們兩國的關係有一個新的開始。

The Shanghai Communiqué, issued during President Nixon’s visit, acknowledged the common ground between the two sides while spelling out the differences as they stood. It pointed out clearly that "there are essential differences between China and the United States in their social systems and foreign policies. Yet, the two sides agreed that countries, regardless of their social systems, should conduct their relations on the principles of respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all states, non-aggression against other states, non-interference in the internal affairs of other states, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence". The two sides stated that progress toward normalizing China-US relations served the interest of all countries. This historic document kept explicit account of the important common understanding that the two sides were ready to approach their relations on the principles of mutual respect, equality and seeking common ground while shelving differences. The Shanghai Communiqué fully reflected the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and conformed to the basic norms of international relations.

中美雙方在尼克松總統訪華期間發表“上海公報”,在肯定兩國共同點的同時,如實列出雙方存在的分歧,明確指出中美兩國的社會制度和外交政策有着本質的區別,同意各國不論社會制度如何,都應根據尊重各國主權和領土完整、不侵犯別國、不干涉別國內政、平等互利、和平共處的原則來處理國與國之間的關係。雙方還聲明,中美關係走向正常化是符合所有國家利益的。這一歷史性文件載明瞭中美雙方願意秉持相互尊重、平等相待、求同存異原則處理兩國關係的重要共識。“上海公報”充分體現了聯合國憲章宗旨和原則的精神,符合國際關係基本準則。

From Dr. Kissinger’s secret trip to President Nixon’s official visit, an important step was taken toward normalization of China-US relations. That was followed by the Carter Administration’s acceptance of the three principles proposed by China, namely the US must sever "diplomatic relations" and abrogate its "mutual defense treaty" with Taiwan and US forces must withdraw from Taiwan. On such basis, the US reached agreement with China on the proper handling of the Taiwan question. In the Joint Communiqué issued on 16 December 1978 on the establishment of diplomatic ties, the US recognized the Government of the People’s Republic of China as the sole legal government of China. The US side went on to state that within that context, the people of the US would maintain cultural, commercial and other unofficial relations with the people of Taiwan. On 1 January 1979, China and the US entered into diplomatic relations.

從基辛格祕密訪華到尼克松總統正式訪華,中美關係邁出了走向正常化的重要一步。卡特政府接受中方提出的“斷交、撤軍、廢約”三原則,並在此基礎上與中方就妥善處理台灣問題達成一致。中美雙方1978年12月16日發表的“建交公報”申明,美方承認中華人民共和國政府是中國唯一合法政府,在此範圍內美國人民同台灣人民保持文化、商務和其他非官方關係。1979年1月1日,中美兩國建交。

From the ice-breaking visit to the normalization of relations and to the establishment of diplomatic ties, leaders and statesmen of the elder generation in China and the US, Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping on the Chinese side, and Richard Nixon, Jimmy Carter and Henry Kissinger on the American side, acted in the fundamental interests of the two peoples and made the political decision of historic significance with their exceptional strategic vision and political courage to rise above the differences in ideology and social systems. The Shanghai Communiqué, the Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations, and the 1982 Joint Communiqué that focused on addressing the question of US arms sales to Taiwan, something left over from history, identified the One China principle and established the principles of mutual respect, equality and seeking common ground while putting aside differences as the guiding principles in conducting China-US relations. They form the political foundation of China-US relations.

在中美關係“破冰”、正常化直至建交的過程中,毛澤東、周恩來、鄧小平和尼克松、卡特、基辛格等中美老一輩領導人和政治家從兩國人民根本利益出發,以非凡的戰略眼光和卓越的政治勇氣,超越意識形態和社會制度的差異,作出了歷史性的政治決斷。“上海公報”、“建交公報”以及1982年着重解決美國售台武器這一歷史遺留問題的“八·一七”公報,確立了一箇中國原則,確認了相互尊重、平等相待、求同存異等處理兩國關係的準則,構成了中美關係的政治基礎。

The fact of history is, China has always upheld the leadership of the CPC and steadfastly followed the path of socialism. From the outset of the normalization process, China-US relations have always been based on the common understanding that both sides recognize and respect each other’s different social system. Some US politicians claim that in engaging and entering into diplomatic relations with China, the original US purpose was to change China, and that US policy of engagement with China has become a total failure. They portray China as having tried over all these years to fool and deceive the US. Their allegations are fanfare for ideological confrontation and the Cold War mentality. They are nothing short of discredit to the enormous efforts and contributions made throughout past decades by people across the two societies to promote the development of China-US relations. Yet, fact is fact, and history cannot be tampered with. We need to take an attitude that is responsible to history and to the people. We need to stand up for what is right and set the record straight. We need to jointly safeguard the foundation of China-US relations and protect the friendship between the Chinese and American people. Any attempt otherwise will fail the test of history and people’s expectation.

歷史事實是,中國始終堅持中國共產黨領導,一直堅定不移走社會主義道路,從中美關係正常化進程開始,兩國關係就是建立在雙方承認並尊重彼此社會制度不同這一共識基礎之上。當前,美方一些政客聲稱美國當初與中國接觸和建交是為了改變中國,美國對華接觸政策已全面失敗,污衊中國多年來欺騙美國,渲染意識形態對立,竭力鼓吹冷戰思維。這是對幾十年來中美兩國各界人士為推動中美關係發展所作巨大努力和貢獻的莫大褻瀆。然而,事實就是事實,歷史豈容篡改。我們要以對歷史和人民負責的態度,激濁揚清,還歷史以本來面目,共同維護好中美關係的基礎,維護好中美兩國人民的友好感情,否則歷史和人民決不會答應。

II. After establishment of diplomatic ties, and thanks to concerted efforts on both sides, China-US relations have made historic progress despite ups and downs along the way. It has brought enormous benefits to the two peoples and contributed significantly to world peace, stability and prosperity. Cooperation between China and the US has always been conducted for mutual benefit. For the past 41 years, China and the US, and for that matter all countries in the world, have benefited from the development of China-US relations.

二. 中美建交後,在雙方共同努力下,兩國關係歷經風雨和坎坷,取得了歷史性發展,不僅給兩國人民帶來了巨大利益,也有力促進了世界的和平、穩定、發展。中美合作從來都是互利共贏的,41年來兩國和世界各國都是中美關係發展的受益者。

Since reform and opening-up started, the hardworking and talented Chinese people have, under the leadership of the CPC, achieved phenomenal progress. China’s rapid development over the decades, which benefited from interactions and cooperation with countries around the world, has in turn provided the US and other countries with sustained growth impetus and important opportunities. The volume of trade between China and the US has increased more than 200 times over the early days of diplomatic ties, and two-way investment has taken off from scratch to reach nearly US$240 billion. Made-in-China goods, nice and inexpensive, are best buys for American consumers. China’s vast market and sound business environment offer a source of tremendous profits for US firms.

改革開放以來,在中國共產黨的領導下,中國人民憑着自己的勤勞和智慧,取得了巨大發展成就。在此過程中,中國的快速發展得益於同世界各國的交流合作,也為包括美國在內世界各國提供了持續的增長動力和重要機遇。中美貿易額較建交之初增長了200多倍,雙向投資從幾乎為零到近2400億美元。中國物美價廉的商品給美國消費者帶來了實惠,中國廣闊的市場和良好的營商環境為美國企業提供了豐厚利潤。

The exchange of visits between the Chinese and American people jumped from several thousand to over five million per year. More than 400,000 Chinese students are studying in the US. Fifty pairs of sister provinces/states and 227 pairs of sister cities have been forged between the two sides. In the face of natural disasters from Hurricane Katrina in 2005 to the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, our two peoples felt for each other and lent each other a helping hand. When COVID-19 struck, Chinese and Americans from all walks of life rushed to each other’s assistance. Chinese provinces, cities, enterprises and institutions have donated masks, protective gowns and other medical supplies to affected populations, communities, cities and states in the US. They have also provided the US with large quantities of virus containment materials.

中美人員往來從每年幾千人次增長到超過500萬人次,中國在美留學生總數超過40萬人。兩國建立了50對友好省州關係和227對姐妹城市。從2005年卡特里娜颶風災害到2008年汶川重大地震災害,中美兩國人民感同身受,紛紛向對方施以援手。新冠肺炎疫情發生後,中美兩國各界相互馳援。中國有關省市、企業和機構向美方受疫情影響的州市、社區和民眾捐贈口罩、防護服等醫用設備,並向美方供應了大批抗疫物資。

China and the US, together with the rest of the world, have been committed to upholding world peace, security and development. The two countries have had close communication and coordination on regional hot-spots such as the Korean Peninsula, Afghanistan and the Middle East, and have worked with relevant countries to advance the political settlement of these issues. China and the US have had productive cooperation in counter-terrorism, non-proliferation, narcotics control, disease prevention and containment, poverty alleviation, peacekeeping, and the fight against the abuse and trafficking of fentanyl, among others. In 2001, when the US was hit by the September 11 terrorist attack, the Chinese Government and people immediately expressed their sympathies to the American Government and people, and the two countries strengthened coordination and cooperation on counter-terrorism and non-proliferation. In the meantime, China has called for rejecting double standards or even multiple standards in countering terrorism. During the 1997 Asian financial crisis and the 2008 global financial crisis, China and the US worked with the rest of the world and made significant contributions to safeguarding international financial stability and kick-starting global recovery. The joint efforts of China, the US and other countries have led to the signing of the Paris Agreement, providing a strong impetus for global cooperation on climate change. The two countries have also carried out trilateral cooperation on food security in Timor-Leste, conducted joint training for Afghan diplomats and helped Africa to fight Ebola, setting a prime example of them working together to facilitate capacity-building in a third country.

中美兩國同世界各國一道,致力於維護世界和平、安全與發展。雙方在朝鮮半島、阿富汗、中東等地區熱點問題上保持了密切溝通協調,與相關國家一道推動有關問題的政治解決進程。中美在反恐、防擴散、禁毒、疾病防控、減貧、維和、打擊芬太尼濫用走私活動等領域開展了富有成效的合作。2001年,美國遭受“9·11”恐怖襲擊後,中國政府和人民即向美國政府和人民表示慰問,中美在反恐和防擴散領域加強協調與合作。同時,中方一直強調在反恐問題上不能採取雙重或多重標準。面對1997年亞洲金融危機和2008年國際金融危機,中美和各國合力應對,為維護國際金融穩定、促進世界經濟復甦作出了重要貢獻。在中美等國攜手推動下,氣候變化《巴黎協定》得以簽署,為促進全球氣候變化合作提供重要動力。中美雙方還在東帝汶開展糧食安全三方合作,聯合培訓阿富汗外交官,在非洲聯手抗擊埃博拉疫情,成為兩國協助第三國加強能力建設的範例。

That said, the past 41 years has not all been smooth sailing for China-US relations. There have been ups and downs and even major setbacks on the way. However, the two countries have always approached their relationship from a historical perspective and with the bigger picture in mind. They have managed differences and disagreements, properly handled sensitive issues, and safeguarded the momentum of steady growth in China-US relations. What has happened shows that no obstacle is insurmountable for China and the US. The key lies in a true commitment to mutual respect, equality and seeking common ground while shelving differences. It lies in the courage to take up the responsibility for history and the people.

當然,41年來,中美關係發展並非一帆風順,中美之間也曾經歷過風風雨雨和重大波折,但兩國都能夠從歷史和大局出發,管控矛盾和分歧,妥善處理敏感問題,維護了中美關係總體穩定發展的勢頭。事實證明,中美之間沒有過不去的坎,關鍵在於要有相互尊重、平等相待、求同存異的誠意,在於要有對歷史和人民負責的擔當。

The history of China-US relations over the past 41 years teaches a lot. First, China and the US must always approach and handle their relations by keeping in mind the common interests of the two countries and all countries in the world, as well as the future of all humanity. Such an approach will benefit not only the two countries but countries around the world. Second, China and the US must always keep to the right direction in the relationship, and bear firmly in mind that their common interests far outweigh their differences. Third, China and the US must always manage their differences in a constructive manner, abide by the principles and spirit of the three Joint Communiqués, and respect each other’s core interests and major concerns. Fourth, China and the US must always work to expand cooperation in a win-win spirit, and bring greater benefits to the two countries and the world at large. These valuable experiences have proved effective in the past. They remain effective now and will continue to be effective in the future.

回顧41年的中美關係,我們可以從中得到許多寶貴的歷史啓迪:一是要始終從中美兩國人民和世界各國人民共同利益、全人類前途命運出發考慮和處理兩國關係,為中美兩國好,也為世界各國好。二是要始終堅持中美關係的正確方向,牢牢把握兩國共同利益遠大於分歧。三是要始終建設性管控分歧,恪守中美三個聯合公報原則和精神,尊重彼此核心利益和重大關切。四是要始終致力於擴大中美合作,遵循合作共贏原則,為兩國和世界帶來更多福祉。這些有益經驗過去管用,現在管用,今後也管用。

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perspective [pə'spektiv]

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n. 遠景,看法,透視
adj. 透視的

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sensitive ['sensitiv]

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adj. 敏感的,靈敏的,易受傷害的,感光的,善解人意的

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provocative [prə'vɔkətiv]

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adj. 氣人的,挑撥的,刺激的
n. 刺激物

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commission [kə'miʃən]

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n. 委員會,委託,委任,佣金,犯罪
vt.

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claim [kleim]

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n. 要求,要求權;主張,斷言,聲稱;要求物

 
sustained [səs'teind]

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adj. 持久的,經久不衰的

 
option ['ɔpʃən]

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n. 選擇權,可選物,優先購買權
v. 給予選

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v. 增加,詳述,擴展,使 ... 膨脹,
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adj. 錯誤的,不正確的

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promote [prə'məut]

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vt. 促進,提升,升遷; 發起; 促銷

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